Analysis

Objectives:

To collect in the four participating countries the available data on the textile industry like:

Results:

The methods for collecting data have differed with factors as the total size of the industry and the initial response from contacted companies in each country. A different number of companies have been selected, in Sweden 76, in Portugal 70, in Italy 15 and in Greece 90. The total number of received filled in questionnaires is 76, whereof 46 companies have been visited. In Italy, all the filled in questionnaires come from the visits, as they did not receive replies of acceptable quality from the mailed questionnaires.

The limited amount of resources devoted to this research made not possible to organise a large number of interviews. So, the replies to the questionnaires are to be regarded as case studies and without any possibility to use the data for extrapolation to the entire universe of the textile industries.

   

  Total number of filled in questionnaires Whereof number of visits 
Sweden 23 10
Portugal 19 9
Greece 19 12
Italy 15 15
Total   46

  

    

In the first part of the questionnaire we collected some general data from the industries. The strength of the relation between different data can be seen in the correlation between them. The correlation between energy consumption on one hand and on the other number of employees, factory building area and annual turnover could be derived from the data of the questionnaires. In Portugal the highest correlation was between energy/area, and also energy/employee is an acceptable measure for comparison. In Greece, the only suitable figures for comparison between studied companies are energy/area and energy/turnover ratios. In Sweden, the highest correlation can be found between energy/employee and energy/turn over.

The low correlation factor found in all countries between energy and production, is probably due to the fact that the samples are diversified, i.e. have a mix of industries with different combinations of processes. To get a clear relation, you probably would have to divide them into more defined groups related to their set of processes. Another possibility is to divide the energy consumption into process related energy and energy for supporting systems including lighting, HVAC-systems etc.

An indicator was developed in the project, the Energy Attention Indicator (EAI), measuring the attention is devoted to energy savings. It is expressed in the share of positive answers to the questions in the questionnaire. From tabulating the results we can se some differences between the countries in energy attention

 
 

Section Question Share of positive answers, %
Portugal Greece Sweden Italy Average 
Electrical system Variable speed drivers 58  58  23  87  56 
  Reschedule processes to smooth out peak load 32  11  4  60  27 
  Use devises, i. e. microprocessor motor controllers, for saving energy on motors  33  0  9  47  22 
  Local power factor correction 41  32  43  93  52 
  Energy management and monitoring system 14  11  13  47  21 
  Co-generation 16  0  9  20  11 
Lighting Automatic control of lighting 32  21  13  27  23 
  Lamps segregated according to natural light availability 47  0  39  73  40 
  High frequency current stabilising devises 26  21  35  67  37 

 
 

Section Question Share of positive answers, %
Portugal Greece Sweden Italy Average 
Thermal energy systems Boiler efficiency measured 84  38  63  100  71 
  Thermal insulation of pipes 84  77  60  100  80 
  Condensate return pipe loop 100  100  80  100  95 
  Heat recovery from flash steam 16  0  26  21  16 
  Reduction of the blow-down rate 62  0  46  77  46 
Air-conditioning system The air-conditioning system stops when process stop 91  100  72  91  88 
  Automatic control 91  79  93  54  79 
  Heat recovery system on the air outlet 28  40  64  15  37 
Compressed air system Use of compressed air 100  100  88  100  97 
  Operates at minimum acceptable pressure 95  79  81    85 
Manufacturing processes Individual motions of spindles equipped with frequency inverters 50  62  31  50  48 
  Steaming kiers for steaming yarn 100  55  31    62 
  Optimisation of temperature and humidity 100  41  100  75  79 
  Dying machines with low bath ratio 81  74  91  75  80 
  Heat recovery from dyeing effluents 40  12  91  63  51 
  Heat recovery from dryer exhaust 0  26  77  0  26 
  Alternative drying devices 28  38  36  0  25 
Average   56  41  51  60   

 

 
 
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